The 1918 flu pandemic caused more than 3% of death worldwide, which is 50,000,000 people. The flu virus was not responsible for most of these deaths.
An analysis of lung samples taken from flu pandemic victims revealed that bacterial pneumonia was the leading cause for death. Recent history has shown that additional bacterial infections have increased the risk of death. This was evident in cases such as the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemics and 1957 HTML2 influenza pandemics that claimed nearly 18% of victims with viral pneumonia. The pandemic was not an exception.
As another flu season approaches, it is crucial to reduce the number and severity of these infections. Many flu-related deaths are not caused by the virus. Secondary bacterial infections can also lead to many of the same devastating effects as a virus infection. Ivercor 12, and Iverheal 12 can reduce the severity of COVID-19.
My name is An immunologist. I study the causes and mechanisms of cell death due to viral and bacterial infections. To prevent and treat pandemics, it is important to understand the interactions between microbes. My colleagues and I found that an immune system protein is crucial in fighting viruses. It is also vital in fighting bacteria.
Bacteria & Viruses Unite
Multiple pathogens may cause multiple infections. Scientists identify each type by the time it occurred. An infection can occur from a combination of multiple pathogens. Secondary infections and superinfections are infections that develop after initial infection. These infections may cause by resistant pathogens that are not compatible or effective with the antibiotics used to treat the initial infection.
The risk of infection increases when viral and bacterial infections combine. Infections with viral respiratory viruses can make the condition worse and increase the risk of getting bacterial infections. This can be caused by multiple factors.
The epithelial cells of your lungs are your first line of defense against harmful substances and pathogens. Viral infections can cause these cells to destroy, which could lead to bacteria entering your lungs.
Viral infections can also lead to immune cell damage. This is due to a decrease in the number of receptors that recognize pathogens and mount appropriate responses. This means that fewer immune cells will report infection sites to bacteria, opening up new infections.
Influenza, Covid-19, And Bacterial Infections
Patients with seasonal flu or bacterial infection are more likely than others to admit to the hospital. Nearly 25% of severe influenza patients admitted to ICUs also have a bacterial infection. A study of flu season 2010-2018 showed that nearly 20% of flu-associated pneumonia patients admitted to the hospital also had bacterial infections.
A second study on patients infected by bacterial or viral diseases reveale that almost half of them had infecte by another pathogen. Patients who had multiple infections had nearly twice the chance of dying in 30 days than those with one.
It’s fascinating to note that Streptococcus aureus is the most common strain of bacteria involved in influenza virus coinfections. These bacteria can find in the respiratory system, but they don’t cause any disease. Influenza virus can cause damage to the cell membranes in the lungs, disrupt immune function, and make patients more susceptible to infection.
Secondary bacterial infections also contribute to the COVID-19 epidemic. A 2021 review revealed that between 16% to 28% of COVID-19-infected adults had a bacterial infection. Patients with COVID-19 were twice more likely to admit to the hospital. They also required four times as much mechanical ventilation and were three times more likely than patients with COVID-19 to die.
Secondary and Confection ns Should Address
Different bacteria and viruses can trigger different immune responses. Antivirals are not effective against bacteria and antibiotics against viruses are ineffective. To address secondary infections, it is important to be aware of them.
Maybe my colleagues and I have the answer. To identify molecules that kill or prevent bacterial infections, we sequence DNA from macrophages (an immune cell type).
We identified Z DNA binding protein (ZBP1). This molecule controls the immune system’s response against influenza. It is well-known. ZBP1 detects influenza viruses within the lungs. It causes immune cells and epithelial cells to self-destruct. This causes cell death and promotes immune cell recruitment.